AET 2050 - DAW Production
1. Data Storage Media - Optical Storage
Chapter 5.1.7-5.1.14, Desktop Audio Technology - Rumsey
Specifications - "Books"
CD specifications are categorized defining physical dimensions, techniques for manufacture, how data is organized, etc.
There are many specifications, with many interactions - deistinguishing between them can be confusing!
Specifications were originally designed and released by Phillips and Sony.
Specs are organized into "books" described by colors. (The colors refer to binders in which these specs were gathered!)
Red Book (CD-DA)
- standard audio format
- Data is limited to digital audio - 44.1K, 16-bit
- Up to 99 tracks per disc
- TOC placed at beginning of disc - all audio data after that
- data is etched into metal layer as "pits" and "lands"
Yellow Book (CD-ROM)
- modification of audio format to accommodate generic data
- data is stored in more conventional blocks, includes extra error protection
- no specific definition as to how data is defined - High Sierra/ISO 9660 are the most compatible (and best choice for cross-platform use)
Green Book (CD i)
- Special format for interactive processes
- Conains audio, video, data, programs
- requires a particular player, designed to connect to a TV set
Orange Book (CD-R)
- allows for recording of data by a user
- Wrtie-Once-Read-Many (WORM)
- constructed with a pre-formed "groove" containing a dye. The dye is heated during writes, changing refectivity
- TOC is written before the "standard" (Red Book) TOC area - unreadable by a Red Book player
- Audio CD can be "fixed" by creating a standard Red Book TOC - this is "finalizing"
- A recorded CD with a Redbook TOC looks like Redbook, but is not - Redbook defines manufactured CDs only!
- Part 2 describes the CD-R
- Part 3 describes the CD-RW
Hybrid Audio/Data CDs
CD Extra - Blue Book
Recording Modes for CD-R
Data need not be recorded all at once. Discs can be removed and data added at a later time if needed.
Orange Book defines an area (inside of the Red Book TOC area) for writing temporary TOC entries and for calibrating the laser power for recording.
- All data is written at one time with a Red Book TOC. The data is prearranged and cannot be updated.
- The laser writes continuously. This is important for CD-A masters, as gaps are interpreted as errors!
- The writer MUST support DAO to get DAO.
- data tracks are written one at a time, with a gap between each.
- The TOC is updated as new tracks are added.
- Data can be read only if software supports it.
- The gap is interpreted as errors at a mastering plant - audio masters CANNOT be made as TAO.
- An extension of TAO.
- With multisession, new TOC can be made, forming different volumes.
- CD-extra is made as multisession - audio first, then data after that.
- Reading drive must be multisession-capable
DVD Specifications - "Books"
DVD-ROM (book A)
DVD-V (Book B)
DVD-A (Book C)
DVD-R (Book D)
DVD-RAM (Book E)
- sectored, similar to a hard drive (truly random-access)
- direct overwrite
- dual sided design requires a cartridge
DVD-RW (Book F)
- similar to CD-RW
- non-compatible alternative to DVD-RAM
- useable as CLV (for video) or CAV (for random access storage)